instructors can demonstrate the sterile cockpit concept by

If fuel quantity is lower than expected on a cross-country flight, the priority can shift from making a scheduled arrival time at the destination, to locating a nearby airport to refuel. This definition also includes the pilots failure to make a decision or take action. TheInternational Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO)Manual on the Prevention of Runway Incursionsdefines Sterile Flight Deck as "any period of time when the flight crew should be not be disturbed, except for matters critical to the safe operation of the aircraft.". It is important for the flight instructor to answer any questions the student may have as result of a solo flight. clearances and altitude deviations) increases when a crew member is out of the [Figure 8-1] The application of outmoded instructional procedures or the preparation of students using obsolete certification requirements is inexcusable. Keeping the flight deck well ventilated aids in dissipating excess heat, Students can become apathetic when they recognize that the instructor has made inadequate preparations for the instruction being given, or when the instruction appears to be deficient, contradictory, or insincere. for 'total concentration-sterile cockpit' procedures." and other activities along the route and were not observing the 'sterile cockpit' The safety record of pilots who hold instrument ratings is significantly better than that of pilots with comparable flight time who have never received formal flight training for an instrument rating. It is not necessarily a function of physical robustness or mental acuity. Penal Code 9.31 discusses the use of non-deadly force and 9.32 discusses the use of deadly force. should be given to developing something that doesn't create its own set of distractions. Consequently, important things were missed. From a broader perspective, the phrase "human factors related" more aptly describes these accidents since it is usually not a single decision that leads to an accident, but a chain of events triggered by a number of factors, The poor judgment chain, or the error chain, describes this concept of contributing factors in a human factors related accident. The following are examples of distractions that can be used for this training: Drop a pencil. During the postflight evaluation, collaborative assessment is used to evaluate whether certain learning criteria were met during the SBT, Collaborative assessment includes learner self-assessment and a detailed assessment by the aviation instructor. "I believe this situation occurred Also associated with pilot skill evaluations during flight training are the stage checks conducted in FAA-approved school courses and the practical tests for pilot certificates and ratings, In assessing piloting ability, it is important for the flight instructor to keep the student informed of progress. A flight instructor who makes a practical test recommendation for an applicant seeking a certificate or rating should require the applicant to demonstrate thoroughly the knowledge and skill level required for that certificate or rating. Because their intention was for the student to demonstrate a soft field landing, both pilots expected the stall warning horn they heard. From Flight ( Click here to go to FAR 121.542 and 135.100 .) Resources must not only be identified, but students must also develop the skills to evaluate whether they have the time to use a particular resource and the impact that its use would have upon the safety of flight. While researching the subject at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) website, he locates several sources that provide background information, such as the fact that, statistically, weather often poses some of the greatest risks to general aviation (GA) pilots, regardless of their experience level. According to one definition, safety is the freedom from conditions that can cause death, injury, or illness; damage to/loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment.FAA regulations are intended to promote safety by eliminating or mitigating conditions that can cause death, injury, or damage. If, due to some unanticipated circumstances the demonstration does not closely conform to the explanation, this deviation should be immediately acknowledged and explained, As discussed in chapter 4, these two phases involve separate actions that are performed concurrently. Keep the sterile cockpit "clean." Craig Levine comes from an airline back ground, and mentioned a particular concern of his. If possible, avoid ending the evaluation on a negative note, As discussed in Chapter 5, Assessment, collaborative assessment (or learner centered grading (LCG)) is a form of authentic assessment currently used in aviation training with problem-based learning (PBL). The pilots failure to maintain an awareness of the circumstances regarding the flight now becomes the problem. It is easy to determine whether an error is induced by a misconception or by a simple lack of motor skills. Sixty percent of stall/spin accidents occurred during takeoff and landing, and twenty percent were preceded by engine failure. However, at a minimum, the instructor needs to cite the appropriate 14 CFR part 61 section that has been completed, FAA inspectors and DPEs rely on flight instructor recommendations as evidence of qualification for certification, and proof that a review has been given of the subject areas found to be deficient on the appropriate knowledge test. Many of the reports contained acknowledgments like this: Following are the four most common The weather at the time of the incident was reported as marginal VFR due to rain showers and thunderstorms. If the student has been adequately prepared and the procedure or maneuver fully explained and demonstrated, meaningful learning occurs. Duties such as company required calls made for non-safety A subsequent investigation critical phase of flight which could distract any flight crew member from Background: While some studies have described the importance of reducing interruptions as a tactic to reduce medication errors, work is needed to assess the impact on . The possible consequences, both to themselves and to others, of experiments with flight operations in weather conditions below visual flight rules (VFR) minimums before they are instrument rated should be constantly impressed on the students. But as this review When the decision-making process is presented to students, it is essential to discuss how the process applies to an actual flight situation. In the USA, theFederal Aviation Administration (FAA)introduced a formal requirement to be applied to all commercial flights in 1981, after reviewing a series of accidents that were caused by flight crews who were distracted from their flying duties, by engaging in non-essential conversations and activities, during critical parts of the flight. while the aircraft is involved in taxi, takeoff, landing, and all other flight Full stop landings help the student develop aircraft control and checklist usage. Texas Penal Code 9.31 and 9.32 together form what is often called the "Castle Doctrine" in Texas. The instructor must be alert and ensure the students understand the objectives of each step of their training, and that they know at the completion of each lesson exactly how well they have progressed and what deficiencies are apparent. The services provided by ATC can be invaluable in enabling pilots to make informed inflight decisions. With the advent of advanced avionics with glass displays, GPS, and autopilot, flying might seem inherently easier and safer, but in reality it has become more complex. The report said the crew was likely distracted Note: Taxi is defined Instructors need to be involved in all aspects of the flight to ensure the student utilizes correct flight procedures. Officer. [Figure 8-11], During a lesson, workload can be gradually increased as the instructor monitors the students management of tasks. section, critical phase of flight involves all ground operations involving Rules and regulations are designed to address known or suspected conditions detrimental to safety, but there is always the probability that some new combination of circumstances not contemplated by the regulations will arise, The recognition of aviation training and flight operations as a system led to a "system approach" to aviation safety. is conducted by flight crew members below 10,000 feet, not only is it potentially This may be done as each procedure or maneuver is completed or summarized during postflight critiques. In addition to the necessary steps, the instructor should describe the end result of these efforts. These same abilities, as well as an objective analysis of all available information, are used to determine the exact nature and severity of the problem, One critical error that can be made during the decision-making process is incorrectly defining the problem. Cited one First Officer: The Captain of an air carrier aircraft Traditional pilot instruction has emphasized flying skills, knowledge of the aircraft, and familiarity with regulations. A pilot in command (PIC) must know when to tell any passengers, even a DPE, when the PIC finds actions in the aircraft that distract and interfere with the safe conduct of the flight, Integrated flight instruction is flight instruction during which students are taught to perform flight maneuvers both by outside visual references and by reference to flight instruments. Exact interpretation of what constitutes the "sterile zone" is influenced by aircraft type, role, and operating environment. to find specific examples of problems related to non-compliance with the sterile The preflight briefing should include procedures for the exchange of flight controls. The Sterile Cockpit/Flight Deck concept involves the restriction of flight crew member activity to that which is operationally essential during busy phases of flight - taxi out, take off, initial climb, intermediate and final approach, landing, and taxi in. [Figure 8-10], One way of exploring the subject of stress with a student is to recognize when stress is affecting performance. This is where learning takes place and where performance habits are formed. In addition to policy development, a board of education may become involved in student discipline when it is necessary to expel a student from school. that flight attendant calls or entry during this time be undertaken only for Then, the instructor adds unforeseen circumstances such as a sudden change in weather that brings excessive winds during final approach. Commonly known as the "sterile cockpit rule," these regulations specifically prohibit crew member performance of non-essential duties or activities while the aircraft is involved in taxi, takeoff, landing, and all other flight operations conducted below 10,000 feet MSL, except cruise flight. What is a 'sterile cockpit'. By discussing the events that led to this incident, instructors can help students understand how a series of judgmental errors contributed to the final outcome of this flight: Weather decisionon the morning of the flight, the pilot was running late and, having acquired a computer printout of the forecast the night before, he did not obtain a briefing from flight service before his departure, Flight planning decision/performance chartthe pilot calculated total fuel requirements for the trip based on a rule-of-thumb figure he had used previously for another airplane. With every complex human endeavor, it is necessary to master the basics if the whole task is to be performed competently and safely. The report cited the pilot and co-pilot for poor Over the years there have been dozens of air carrier accidents that occurred Penal Code 9.41 and 9.42 are also worth looking at because they describe when force and deadly force can be used to protect property. Put simply, the 'sterile cockpit' rules forbid any unnecessary actions or conversations taking place in the aircraft cockpit during the most critical parts of the flights. Instructors should attempt to avoid unnecessary jargon and technical terms that their students do not know. These include but are not limited to: Impatience to proceed to more interesting operations, Physical discomfort, illness, fatigue, and dehydration, Students who believe their instruction is inadequate, or that their efforts are not conscientiously considered and evaluated, do not learn well. Worry or distraction may be due to student concerns about progress in the training course, or may stem from circumstances completely unrelated to their instruction. Traditional assessment depends on a grading scale of "excellent, good, fair, poor" or "exceeds standards, meets standards, needs more training" which often meets the instructors needs but not the needs of the student, With the advent of SBT, collaborative assessment is used whenever the student has completed a scenario. It is estimated that approximately 80 percent of all aviation accidents are human factors related, By taking a system approach to aviation safety, flight instructors interweave aeronautical knowledge, aircraft control skills, ADM, risk management, situational awareness, and SRM into the training process, Historically, the term "pilot error" has been used to describe the causes of these accidents. Instruction must be keyed to the utilization of the interests and enthusiasm students bring with them, and to diverting their attention from their worries and troubles to learning the tasks at hand. On the other hand, if a student is progressing normally, the instructor should avoid unnecessary interruptions or too much assistance, A typical test of how much control is needed often occurs during a students first few attempts to land an aircraft. For example, if a discrepancy is found during preflight, what resources can be used to determine its significance? Commonly known as the "sterile cockpit rule," these regulations the gross rent multiplier uses quizlet. same way about their crew members. It is important that students be given an opportunity to perform the skill as soon as possible after a demonstration, Then, the instructor reviews what has been covered during the instructional flight and determines to what extent the student has met the objectives outlined during the preflight discussion. The ability to make effective decisions as PIC depends on a number of factors. shows, the consequences of non-compliance can be very serious. Stress is an inevitable and necessary part of life; it adds motivation and heightens an individuals response to meet any challenge, Everyone is stressed to some degree all the time. Conversations unrelated to the procedure occurred in 28/30 (93%) emergences. The student should be able to describe the procedures for traffic pattern entry and landing preparation. It is especially critical during the demonstration-performance method of flight instruction. Discouragement and emotional upsets are rare when students feel that nothing is being withheld from them or is being neglected in their training, Physical discomfort, illness, and fatigue will materially slow the rate of learning during both classroom instruction and flight training. A sterile cockpit has nothing to do with the cleanliness of the physical environment. The instructor must exercise good judgment to decide how much control to use. Aviation strategies often guide patient safety improvement discussions. When an instructor is teaching a maneuver to a student, the instructor normally demonstrates the maneuver first, then has the student follow along on the controls during a demonstration and, finally, the student performs the maneuver with the instructor following along on the controls. boundary may be too low. Nonessential activities include such activities as eating, reading a newspaper, or chatting. and serious incidents that perhaps could have been prevented. An implicit prerequisite to the evidence-based transfer of such a concept to the clinical domain, however, is definition of periods of high mental workload analogous to takeoff and landing. If a misunderstanding exists, it can be corrected before the student becomes absorbed in controlling the aircraft, Application is the third step in this method. He did not use the fuel tables printed in the pilots operating handbook (POH) for the aircraft he was flying on this trip. VFR into IMC accidents often lead to fatalities. If you wish to contribute or participate in the discussions about articles you are invited to join SKYbrary as a registered user. He was forced to land at the nearest airfield available, On numerous occasions during the flight, the pilot could have made decisions which may have prevented this incident, However, as the chain of events unfolded, each poor decision left him with fewer and fewer options. Air traffic controllers, take notice: Distractions caused by flight attendants runway! [Figure 8-6], Flight instructors should always guard the controls and be prepared to take control of the aircraft. These problems are often due to inadequacies of the course or of the instructor. The first effect of high workload is that the pilot begins to work faster. When teaching more than one skill at the same time, the simple-to-complex strategy works well. when the crew diverted attention from the task at hand and became occupied with not related to the proper conduct of the flight are not required for the flight is above or below 10,000 feet. 14 CFR Section 91.3, Responsibility and Authority of the Pilot in Command, states that "In an inflight emergency requiring immediate action, the pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the extent required to meet that emergency", Flight instructors should incorporate ADM, risk management, situational awareness, and SRM throughout the entire training course for all levels of students. Two benefits accrue from this step: the student, being freed from the need to concentrate on performance of the maneuver and from concern about its outcome, is able to organize his or her thoughts regarding the steps involved and the techniques to be used. The explanation phase also should include coverage of appropriate safety procedures. cockpit rule. This concept should be emphasized to students and reinforced when training procedures are performed. This is especially important due to the wide variety in global positioning systems (GPS) and glass panel displays, It is the personal responsibility of each flight instructor to maintain familiarity with current pilot training techniques and certification requirements. Before endorsing a student for solo flight, the instructor should require the student to demonstrate consistent ability to perform all of the fundamental maneuvers, Instructors should teach students how to solve ordinary problems encountered during flight. The common thread to the accidents were flight crews distracted from flying by non-essential conversations and activities during . The student must be comfortable, confident in the instructor and the aircraft, and at ease if effective learning is to occur. As one reporter resolves: Another reporter offered a good suggestion instructors can demonstrate the sterile cockpit concept by. in a way, the entire 9 hours in a very busy ED is like flying under 10,000 feet. If a student seems distracted, or has a particularly difficult time accomplishing the tasks of the lesson, the instructor can query the student. Reviewing the appropriate chart and setting radio frequencies well in advance of need helps reduce workload as the flight nears the airport. sterile cockpit rule is really important, so we'll adhere to it. of air carrier accidents and serious incidents, the traveling public feels the Based on his original calculations, he believed sufficient fuel remained for the flight home, Fatigue/failure to recognize personal limitationsin the presence of deteriorating weather, the pilot departed for the flight home at 5:00 p.m. When this training technique is used, instruction in the control of an aircraft by outside visual references is integrated with instruction in the use of flight instrument indications for the same operations, It important for the student to establish the habit of observing and relying on flight instruments from the beginning of flight training. Note: Taxi is defined as movement of an airplane under its own power on the surface of an airport.. According to NTSB accident data, inflight encounters with weather (attempting VFR flight into IMC) is one of the most lethal types of GA flying, Integrated flight instruction begins with the first briefing on the function of the flight controls. In this case, the students knowledge of the aircraft, the POH, an instructor or other experienced pilot, or an AMT can be a resource which may help define the problem, During cross-country training, students may be asked to consider the following situation. specifically prohibit crew member performance of non-essential duties or activities In this case, the pilot landed his aircraft without loss of life, Teaching pilots to make sound decisions is the key to preventing accidents. The controller growled a little, Friends- The weather is warm, the evenings are long, the grandchildren are fun, and I haven't felt like writing. A student may show an initial tendency to move the bar in the direction of the desired turn. the performance of his or her duties or which could interfere in any way Other examples of SBT can have the instructor adding undesired landing sites for balloon student pilots, rope breaks for glider students, and radio outages for instrument airplane students. For those who develop company procedures, consideration The demonstration-performance method is divided into four phases: explanation, demonstration, student performance with instructor supervision, and evaluation. surprised when they lined up with the wrong runway -- and doubly surprised when The following is an example of the type of scenario that can be presented to illustrate the poor judgment chain, A private pilot with 100 hours of flight time made a precautionary landing on a narrow dirt runway at a private airport. Activities such as eating meals, When introducing lesson tasks, flight instructors should not introduce the minimum acceptable standards for passing the checkride. The sterile cockpit rule was designed to know you" sort of chat. Unexpected calls or cockpit entry A good time to establish the desire Doing several things at once, though, may mean that something important falls through the cracks. As the student develops immunity, flights can be increased in length until normal flight periods are practicable, Keeping students interested and occupied during flight is a deterrent to airsickness. operations conducted below 10,000 feet MSL, except cruise flight. The instructor can correct student impatience by presenting the necessary preliminary training one step at a time, with clearly stated goals for each step. Activities such as eating meals, engaging in non-essential conversations within the cockpit and non-essential communications between the cabin and cockpit crews, and reading publications not related to the proper conduct of the flight are not required for the safe operation of the aircraft. It is a testing tool. She verifies that the original calculations are correct and considers factors that may have lengthened the time between checkpoints, such as a climb or deviation off course. (c) For the purposes of this section, critical phases of flight includes all ground operations involving taxi, takeoff and landing, and all other flight operations conducted below 10,000 feet, except cruise flight. On the positive side, the pilot made a precautionary landing at a time and place of his choosing. For example, if the student consistently makes a decision not to fly, even though weather briefings indicate favorable conditions, it may be due to apprehension regarding the lesson content. loop. lesson was also learned. Psychological problems such as financial, home life, or job-related stresses cause a lack of qualified rest that is only solved by mitigating the underlying problems before the fatigue is solved. Effective use of instruments also results in superior cross-country navigation, better coordination, and generally, a better overall pilot competency level, General aviation accident reports provide ample support for the belief that reference to flight instruments is important to safety. surgery would think too kindly of the surgical team who failed to sterilize In 1981 Additional information on recommendations and endorsements can be found in Appendix E, Flight Instructor Endorsements, Remember that students learning is sometimes subject to their environment, Be sure to provide challenges such as crosswinds in training before they see it on their checkride, or potentially worse, as a brand new pilot with passengers. Holding precise headings and altitudes in cruising flight definitely increases average cruising performance, The use of integrated flight instruction provides the student with the ability to control an aircraft in flight for limited periods if outside references are lost. As she proceeds to the airport, she continues to monitor groundspeed, aircraft performance, and weather conditions to ensure no additional steps need to be taken to guarantee the safety of the flight, It is important to stress to a student that being familiar with the decision-making process does not ensure he or she has the good judgment to be a safe pilot. Since some of the most valuable internal resources are ingenuity, knowledge, and skill, pilots can expand flight deck resources immensely by improving their capabilities. There are many types of assessment, but the flight instructor generally uses the review, collaborative assessment (LCG), written tests, and performance-based tests to ascertain knowledge or practical skill levels. light" that can be illuminated when descending below 10,000 feet and extinguished [Figure 8-3], Poor instructional presentations may result not only from poor preparation, but also from distracting mannerisms, personal untidiness, or the appearance of irritation with the student. gaisano grand mall mission and vision . sterile cockpit rule over the past decade, pilots have continued to have accidents Motivation also declines when a student believes the instructor is making unreasonable demands for performance and progress. full of sight-seeing crew members is an ASRS report looking for a place to happen Checklists should be performed well in advance so there is time to focus on traffic and ATC instructions. items totally unrelated to flying. A positive three-step process in the exchange of flight controls between pilots is a proven procedure and one that is strongly recommended. Despite all the changes in technology to improve flight safety, one factor remains the samethe human factor. In addition, the student should listen to the Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS), Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS), or Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS), if available, and then monitor the tower frequency or Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF) to get a good idea of what traffic conditions to expect. By starting with the simplest skill, a student gains confidence and is less likely to become frustrated when faced with building skills that are more complex, Another consideration in this phase is the language used. The Practical Test Standard (PTS) is not a teaching tool. To ensure the solo flight is a positive, confidence-building experience for the student, the flight instructor needs to consider time of day when scheduling the flight. environment. If the student bounces an airplane on landing, teach the student to make an immediate go around. This is especially important for flight instruction. These two dates should be the same, Completion of prerequisites for a practical test is another instructor task that must be documented properly. Some situations, such as engine failures, require a pilot to respond immediately using established procedures with little time for detailed analysis. Aircraft Destroyed. instructors can demonstrate the sterile cockpit concept by instructors can demonstrate the sterile cockpit concept by. Federwisch M, Ramos H, Adams S' C. Am J Nurs. AFSS can provide updates on weather, answer questions about airport conditions, and may offer direction-finding assistance. The second activity is the instructors supervision, Student performance requires students to act and do. discovered, his absence from the ATC frequency caused an overload with his First In a typical flight lesson, reasonable goals are listed in the lesson objectives and the desired levels of proficiency for the goals are included in statements that contain completion standards, Impatience is a greater deterrent to learning pilot skills than is generally recognized. A certain amount of stress is good since it keeps a person alert and prevents complacency. The minimum standards to pass the checkride should not be introduced until the 3 hours of preparation for the checkride. Emergencies require the pilot to thinkassess the situation, choose and execute the actions that assure safety, not act in a rote manner, It is important for flight instructors to teach students that declaring an emergency when one occurs is an appropriate reaction. Mental habits begin to form with repetition of the instructions previously received. Copyright 2023 CFI Notebook, All rights reserved. The first of these phases is the students performance of the physical or mental skills that have been explained and demonstrated. As the reporter soon In Europe the Sterile Cockpit concept is addressed byEU-OPS 1.085paragraph (f)(9) although in less explicit terms than the FAR: The commander shallnot permit any crew member to perform any activity during take-off, initial climb, final approach and landing except those duties required for the safe operation of the aeroplane; Regardless of regulation, many operators have chosen voluntarily to apply similar rules within their company.